|Managers||Professionals||Technicians and Trade workers||Community and Personal Service workers||Clerical and Administration workers||Sales workers||Machinery operators and drivers||Labourers|
The most popular occupations for women are Professionals, Clerical or Administration Workers, or Community or Personal Service Workers – and women make up the majority of these occupations.
Men’s most popular occupations are slightly different: Professionals, Managers, and Technicians and Trade Workers.
On average, women earn less than men in every one of these eight occupation groups. This happens whether or not there are more women than men in the occupation.
Some occupations, such as Managers or Professionals, pay women higher average earnings than the average income of all men. However in these same occupations we also see a pay gap within the occupation, in favour of men.
The pay gap within occupations is higher than the national gender pay gap (currently 9.1 percent), in all occupations apart from Managers, Clerical and Administration Workers, Sales Workers and Labourers. Apart from Managers, these are comparatively lower-paid occupations.
The pay gap within occupations doesn’t reflect a difference in skills – New Zealand data has shown that pay gaps emerge quickly between men and women who graduate with the same qualifications (see the “Field of Study” option). It also doesn’t reflect a difference in productivity, as recent research has shown that women are just as productive as men.
Research has shown that the more discretion in wage setting, the higher the gender pay gaps. Only 20% of the gender pay gap is explained by factors such as the type of work people do, their family responsibilities, their age, or their education. The other 80% is driven by unexplained factors – including unconscious bias.