This academic paper presents results of a survey of women working in the New Zealand public sector (see Proctor-Thomson, et al., 2011 for a separate discussion of the same survey results). New Zealand legislation offers carers a "right to request" flexible work arrangements, which employers must consider but have discretion to reject on business grounds.
The survey collected data on flexible work outcomes for women in public service, finding 37 percent had little or no choice over working arrangements. Data is also presented on the types of leave taken by women, factors identified by them as reasons why flexible work was unavailable when not offered, and women's ratings of the degree of influence they held over various aspects of their work, with workload being seen as the least possible to influence. The authors argue that flexible work is a matter not only of choice, but of a worker's ability to provide meaningful input into organisational decision-making, or "voice".