Schein, V. E., Mueller, R., Lituchy, T., & Liu, J.
Journal of Organizational Behavior
Area of focus: 
Unconscious Bias

This academic paper builds on previous research which found that management students in the United States, United Kingdom and Germany associate the managerial role with characteristics more commonly held by men than by women. The same methodology was here used to assess sex role stereotypes and beliefs about the characteristics of successful managers held by students in Japan and the People's Republic of China, and found that male and female students in both countries hold a similar "think manager - think male" bias, although this association is somewhat less pronounced amongst the female Chinese students surveyed.

The authors conclude that managerial sex typing appears to be a worldwide phenomenon, and recommendations are made for further research and remedial action. The paper includes a description of the survey tool used, the Schein 92-item Descriptive Index.